Mapping Sites

Short Takes on Geography: MOVE

  • Dr. Lisa Benton-Short, Chief Reader for AP Human Geography, invited Dr. Parag Khanna for a series of dialogues on the major units of the AP Human Geography curriculum, including sharing of maps from his book MOVE: The Forces Uprooting Us.

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Harvard World Map of Connectography

  • The Connectography World Map is a collaboration with Jeff Blossom of the Harvard Center for Geographical Analysis.

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Connectivity Atlas

  • The Connectivity Atlas is a collaboration with Development Seed and the University of Wisconsin-Madison Cartography Lab.

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Maps for Download

Rising water stress in densely populated

  • Densely populated regions (colored yellow through red) face rising water stress over the coming two decades and beyond. (April Zhu)

A Composite Map of Geographic Complexity

  • This map brings together layers of demographics, infrastructure, borders, and resources into a complex composite. (April Zhu)

Peak Humanity

  • The world population is nearing its zenith and will begin to decline. The only question is how quickly. (UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs)

The Last Great Generation?

  • For nearly a century, each generation has been larger than its predecessor. But economic crises and Covid-19 may bring down Gen-Alpha's total size to slightly less than Gen-Z. (UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs)

People on the Move

  • Most migration takes place within regions or between adjacent regions. The largest migrant stock is among the former Soviet republics, followed by the South Asian population in the Gulf countries. (International Organization for Migration, McKinsey & Co., OECD, United Nations, World Bank)

How Fast Will it Get Hot?

  • The optimal geographies for human habitation are shifting as temperatures rise. Darker regions will become unsuitable for human habitation by 2070 or sooner, while lighter regions will become more suitable for settlement. (NASA, National Academy of Sciences, Chi Xu, Marten Scheffer)

Rising Water Stress Across the Planet

  • Freshwater availability is projected to decline in almost all regions of the world over the coming two decades. The Middle East and North Africa, as well as the southern United States and eastern Australia, will be among the most affected geographies. (World Resources Institute)

The Geography of Food

  • Global agriculture today largely overlaps with our population distribution, but rising temperatures and changing rainfall patterns are changing the optimal geographies for agricultural production. (Food and Agriculture Organization, International Food Policy Research Institute)

Today’s Human Geography

  • The current human population is just under eight billion. Near five billion people reside in Asia, one billion in Africa, 750 million in Europe, 600 million in North America, and 425 million in South America. (Brookings Institution, International Monetary Fund, Natural Earth)

A 4 Degree Warmer World

  • If global temperatures rise by 4 degrees Celsius, rain forests become deserts, glaciers disappear, and much of China and India are abandoned. Russia and Canada produce most of our food and are home to billions of climate refugees. (New Scientist / Tribune Content Agency)

Eurasia’s New Silk Roads

  • China is leading Asia's westward push to connect the world's largest landmass through energy and transportation infrastructures. These new "Iron Silk Roads" may prove more lasting and transformative than any previous era. (Map created by Jeff Blossom)

Megacities as the New Economic Geography

  • Urban archipelagos represent a growing share of national economies. Moscow, Sao Paulo, Lagos and Johannesburg are representative of growth markets where one city dominates the economic landscape. (Created by University of Wisconsin-Madison Cartography Laboratory)

China’s Global Supply Chain Complementarities

  • China is now the largest trade partner of twice as many countries as America. (Created by University of Wisconsin-Madison Cartography Laboratory)

From NAFTA to North American Union

  • Canada, the United States and Mexico are increasingly integrated through cross-border infrastructures, resource sharing, trade and investment. (Map created by Jeff Blossom)

Pax Arabia

  • The Arab world is ripe for reorganization. New energy and water infrastructures could promote resource-sharing between resource-rich and resource-poor societies, while transportation corridors could connect urban oases to Europe, Africa and Central Asia. (Map created by Jeff Blossom)

United City-States of America

  • America's functional economic regions center around key city hubs that can be more efficiently connected through high-speed railways and Internet cables. (Created by University of Wisconsin-Madison Cartography Laboratory)

Protecting the Planet

  • Governments are designating fragile eco-systems as protected areas and partnering with companies and civil society groups to monitor and restore them. (Created by University of Wisconsin-Madison Cartography Laboratory)

The New Arctic Geography

  • As the Arctic ice melts, the terrain and resources beneath are increasingly contested. Rising temperatures, new resource discoveries and emerging transportation corridors mean more population centers, infrastructure investment and connectivity across the Arctic region. (Map created by Jeff Blossom)

Pax Africana

  • Africa is still more a collection of sub-regions than a united continent, but new transcontinental highways and railways, hydroelectric dams and electricity grids, and oil and gas pipelines are transforming its arbitrary post-colonial map. (Map created by Jeff Blossom)

Pax Aseana

  • Southeast Asia leads the way among post-colonial regions in evolving towards functional integration through transportation and energy infrastructures, trade agreements and supply chain complementarities. (Map created by Jeff Blossom)

Pax Latina

  • South America is almost fully urbanized, with most people living along the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean coasts. New energy and transportation linkages are enabling the continent to trade more efficiently across both oceans, especially with Asia. (Map created by Jeff Blossom)

A Map of Minerals

  • The world's hydrocarbon and mineral resources predate and transcend our political borders. Infrastructure, supply chains and markets move reserves from where they are to where they are consumed. (Map created by Jeff Blossom)

Africa’s Remaining Faultlines

  • Africa's map still features many separatist movements that could lead to the creation of new states, as well as a large number of effectively autonomous provinces within African countries. (Created by University of Wisconsin-Madison Cartography Laboratory)

Asia’s Climate Risk

  • Populations most at risk from droughts, floods and extreme temperatures. (

China: Empire of Mega-Cities

  • China is functionally reorganizing itself around approximately two dozen mega-city clusters, each internally integrated through dense transportation networks while high-speed rail connects the entire country. (Created by University of Wisconsin-Madison Cartography Laboratory)

Europe and Russia: Connectivity and Leverage

  • New oil and gas pipelines from the Caucasus, Central Asia and the Mideast reduce Europe's energy dependence on Russia, while new Russian pipelines avoiding Ukraine diminish its role as a transit state. (Created by University of Wisconsin-Madison Cartography Laboratory)

Global Data Flows Expanding and Accelerating

  • Inter-regional data transfer routes are growing among major cities worldwide. Terabytes per second (Tbps) capacity is a proxy for the volume of data transferred across borders. Europe ranks far ahead of the rest of the world. (Created by TeleGeography)

Europe Fragments as it Grows Together

  • Europe has a substantial number of separatist movements, but even as it devolves, new nations can become members of the collective European Union (EU). (Created by University of Wisconsin-Madison Cartography Laboratory)

Global Hubs Become Demographic Melting Pots

  • As the number of global migrants surges, connected and open cities feature ever higher percentages of foreign born residents. (Created by University of Wisconsin-Madison Cartography Laboratory)

One Mega-City, Many Systems

  • From Guangzhou to Hong Kong, the Pearl River Delta mega-city is becoming one integrated economic corridor covering a dozen cities. By 2030 its population could reach 80 million with an economic output of $2 trillion. (Created by University of Wisconsin-Madison Cartography Laboratory)

Singapore Expands its Economic Geography

  • Singapore cannot expand its territory, but its investments in southern Malaysia and Indonesia's nearby islands have given rise to a "Growth Triangle" of expanding industry and land development. (Created by University of Wisconsin-Madison Cartography Laboratory)

The New Nodes: Special Economic Zones

  • Nearly four thousand special economic zones (SEZs), export processing zones (EPZs), free trade zones (FTZs) and other industrial hubs compete over global supply chains, boosting exports and helping economies climb the value chain. (Created by University of Wisconsin-Madison Cartography Laboratory)

World Food Supplies

  • North America, South America, Europe, India, China and Australia have the largest agricultural resources. The United States, Australia and several European nations are the world's biggest food exporters. (Map created by Jeff Blossom)

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